2011年3月10日

醫院常見細菌整理

依Gram's stain分4大類:GPC(2), GPB, GNC(2), GNB

GPC: 有2種- Staphylcoccus, Streptococcus

Staphylcocci
Coagulase(+): Staphylcoccus aureus
Coagulase(-): CONS類如Staphylcoccus epidemis (表皮菌)
Streptococci
Hemolytic
β-hemolytic(完全溶血)
  1. Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A, 造成pharyngitis & tonsillitis, necrotizing fascilitis)
  2. Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B, 陰道normal flora, 造成neonatal meningitis)
α-hemolytic(部份溶血)
  1. Streptococcus pneumonia 
  2. Streptococcus viridans(牙齒上的細菌)
  3. Streptococcus bovis (Group D, 造成endocarditis)
Non-hemolytic- Enterococcus (現已從Streptococcus獨立出來)
  1. Enterococcus mutans
  2. Enterococcus faecalis(牙科手術)

GPB:

Aerobes(4) 李白土炭
  1. Listeria (李斯特菌)
  2. Corynebacterium dipheriae(白喉)
  3. Nocardia (土壤菌絲, 放線菌科)
  4. Bacillus anthracis (炭疽)
Anaerobes Clostridium (梭狀桿菌, 腸道菌)
  1. C. perfringens
  2. C. difficile
  3. C. botulinum
  4. C. tetani

GNC: 只有兩種

Nesseria
  1. N. meningitis
  2. N. gonorrhea
Moraxella catarrhalis (Pneumonia)

GNB: 最多,剩下的都在這

  • 腸道菌 (Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, PEcK)
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Yersinia pestis (黑死病)
  • Haemophilus influenzae
  • Mycobacteria (ex: TB, NTM)
  • Bacteroides
  • ...
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